On April 11th 1814, Napoleon Bonaparte was banished to the Mediterranean island of Elba after abdicating his throne in the Treaty of Fontainebleau. Napoleon was the emperor of France and one of the greatest military leaders in history.
The future emperor was born as Napoleone di Buonaparte in Ajaccio, Corsica, on August 15th 1769, the second of eight children. He was born one year after Corsica was ceded to France by the Republic of Genoa. He changed his name to the more French sounding Napoleon Bonaparte when he was in his twenties.
He attended military school at Brienne-le-Chateau, where he was teased by other students for his Corsican accent and never learned to spell properly, though he applied himself to reading. An examiner at the school observed his prowess for mathematics, history and geography, and considered that he would make an excellent sailor. For a while, he considered applying to the British navy.
Instead, he was admitted to the elite Ecole Militaire in Paris, to study as a French artillery officer, and completed the two year course in one year. He became the first Corsican to graduate from the famous military school.
During the French Revolution of 1789 he rapidly rose rapidly through the military ranks, leading French troops in a number of successful campaigns throughout Europe in the late 1700s. By 1799, he had established himself at the top of a military dictatorship. In 1804, he became emperor of France and continued to consolidate power through his military campaigns, so that by 1810 much of Europe came under his rule.
Although Napoleon developed a reputation for being power-hungry and insecure, he is also credited with enacting a series of important political and social reforms that had a lasting impact on European society, including judiciary systems, constitutions, voting rights for all men and the end of feudalism. Additionally, he supported education, science and literature. His Code Napoleon, which codified key freedoms gained during the French Revolution, such as religious tolerance, remains the foundation of French civil law.
In 1812, thinking that Russia was plotting an alliance with England, Napoleon launched an invasion against the Russians that eventually ended with his troops retreating from Moscow and much of Europe uniting against him. In 1814, Napoleon’s broken forces gave up and Napoleon offered to step down in favor of his son. When this offer was rejected, he abdicated and was sent to Elba.
In March 1815, he escaped his island exile and returned to Paris, where he regained supporters and reclaimed his emperor title, Napoleon I, in a period known as the Hundred Days. However, in June 1815, he was defeated at the bloody Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon’s defeat ultimately signaled the end of France’s domination of Europe. He abdicated for a second time and was exiled to the remote island of Saint Helena, in the southern Atlantic Ocean, where he lived out the rest of his days. He died at age 52 on May 5th 1821, possibly from stomach cancer, although some theories contend he was poisoned.